Bayern Munich are the big-spending club everybody loves to hate, while Borussia Dortmundai??i??s homegrown side are the darlings of today’s football world. But historically speaking, Bayern are not the only Bundesliga club who have paid excessively for transfers.

 Transfer and Finance Myths  - Bayern And Dortmund

Who’s afraid of the big bad Bayern?

Mario GAi??tze’s ai??i??37 million transfer has caused something of an uproar this past week. Quite naturally, much of the anger is aimed at Bayern Munich ai??i??Ai??the scourge of the land, the cash-flush demons of Bavaria who come to snatch away every club’s best and brightest in the night. Poor Dortmund, the world laments. Money is poisoning football, we agree.

It’s a very convenient narrative, “the big bad Bayern empire” vs. “the poor courageous Dortmund youngsters”. It’s even a very German narrative, for where else has money in football been viewed with such suspicion for so many years? Bayern, as the most successful club in Bundesliga history, suffer from the Manchester United effect and become the natural antagonists in narratives of good vs. evil, David vs. Goliath, Luke Skywalker vs. the Galactic Empire.

Many people love a feel-good, underdog story. We identify with the challenger rather than with the dominator because, let’s face it, most of us are not and may never be the big kahuna. So we look to the plucky giant slayers for inspiration, the APOELs and BATE Borisovs of this world. And when the APOELs and BATEs are missing, we create one ai??i??Ai??out of a team like Borussia Dortmund, for example.

This simplistic narrative may be more or less true for the two current sides, seeing as Bayern’s net transfer spending from the last five years clocks in at three times that of Dortmund’s. But it would be crude to paint Bayern as the money club in the Bundesliga, since historically Dortmund have also been known to sink ridiculous amounts into transfers. The hip, young image of today’s Dortmund is a relatively recent phenomenon, dating back to 2008 when JA?rgen Klopp took the reins after the club had endured a miserable decade of footballing and financial uncertainty. And hard as it may be to believe, Bayern actually used to be a rather frugal club compared to the rest of the Bundesliga.

A brief history of Bundesliga transfers

It is a common myth that Bayern have always dominated the Bundesliga through financial superiority and the simple expedient of buying anybody who looked any good at this whole football thing. But in truth, the record-breaking spenders have historically been other Bundesliga clubs.

For starters, Werder Bremen signed five big players in 1971 to earn the moniker “the million-mark side” ai??i??Ai??little good that it did them, as their five stars managed a grand total of 37 goals between them. A decade of big-spending tactics backfired badly and in 1980 Bremen were relegated after shipping 93 goals in 34 games.

FC Cologne made the first DM1 million transfer in Bundesliga history when they bought Roger van Gool in 1976. (Around this time, Bayern were turning out a measly profit of about DM200,000.) 1987 saw Eintracht Frankfurt break the DM3 million mark for Lajos Detari. In 1995, Dortmund became the first team to top DM10 million buying Heiko Herrlich from Borussia MAi??nchengladbach. And six years later, Dortmund again made a record transfer when they paid DM50 million (ai??i??25 million) for Marcio Amoroso.

Two of Dortmund’s 20th century transfers remain in the top 50 of all Bundesliga intra-league transfers: Herrlich, and Fredi Bobic (ai??i??5.75 million, 1999). Impressive, considering how the vast majority of record transfers on the books are from the last decade, with only three candidates representing the pre-2000 era.

Of course, looking at the list of most expensive Bundesliga transfers, Bayern represent the vast majority of spending. Most of the Reds’ escalating numbers have come in recent years, as is to be expected, given Dortmund’s financial fall in the early 2000’s and Bayern’s incredible commercial revenue. Bayern shattered previous records in 2009 when they bought Mario Gomez from Stuttgart for ai??i??30 million. Manuel Neuer followed in 2011 as the Bundesliga’s most expensive goalkeeper, at ai??i??22 million. And then there was Javi Martinez, who commanded a famous ai??i??40 million fee.

A combination of smart business and smart football have placed Bayern in the enviable financial situation they are in today, and generally speaking, the Bavarians spend ridiculous amounts of money because they have the money to spend. Unfortunately, the same has not always been true of other Bundesliga clubs ai??i??Ai??including Dortmund.

Financial turbulence at Dortmund

One of the founding members of the Bundesliga, Dortmund were a perennial favorite in the early years of the league, and became the first German team to triumph internationally when they won the Cup Winners Cup against Liverpool in 1966. It was an occasion that caused the radio commentator to proclaim, “German football is now established in Europe.”

The 1970’s and 1980’s were characterized by chronic financial troubles, as Dortmund went from the relative success of the 1960’s to being relegated in 1972. They fought their way back to the Bundesliga four years later, then barely managed to avoid going down again in 1986.

Dortmund’s salvation came in the form of Ottmar Hitzfeld in 1991. The German mathematician turned a struggling team around, and in 1993 Dortmund came into a huge windfall by reaching the final of the UEFA Cup. It came at a time when German TV stations began pouring money into European football coverage, and for that first year, clubs were paid depending on how far they progressed. Dortmund were the only German side to make it past the round of 16 and consequently walked away with all the money from March onwards: a tidy sum of DM25 million.

Dortmund’s spending power now grew to rival clubs abroad ai??i??Ai??specifically Italy, where many German professionals had gone for bigger salaries than were available in the Bundesliga. But now with their new-found wealth, Dortmund brought home the likes of Matthias Sammer, Karl-Heinz Riedle, JA?rgen Kohler, Andreas MAi??ller, and Stefan Reuter. They further raided Juventus for Julio Cesar and Paulo Sousa.

The 1990s were Dortmund’s golden age, as the club under Hitzfeld won a slew of honors including two Bundesliga titles and the Champions League in 1997. But with the turn of the millennium, Dortmund’s fortunes again took a turn for the worse. They finished 4th in 1999 but were almost relegated the next season. Those years saw Dortmund plunge deeper into the buying mentality, as the club sank even more money into transfers in hopes of rescue by stardom. In came Fredi Bobic for ai??i??5.8 million, Tomas Rosicky for ai??i??14.5 million, Marcio Amoroso for ai??i??25 million, Jan Koller for ai??i??12.75 million, and Evanilson for ai??i??15 million.

The 2001/02 season featured an expensive Dortmund side vying for the league against a dynamic Bayer Leverkusen; BVB emerged victorious with a late winner on the final matchday. And that was the last of the good news for a while. The following year, Dortmund faced financial insolvency as their spending caught up with them.

At this point, a bit of Bayern history is necessary to contextualize the role that the Bavarians would play in BVB’s 2003 financial crisis.

Who’s afraid of the big bad Bayern?

Bayern Munich are the club that everybody loves to hate. As the most successful club in Bundesliga history, Bayern are the perennial center of attention, and everybody has an opinion when it comes to the arrogant(/proud), big-spending(/financially-robust) Bavarians.

One count against Bayern is their supposed good luck ai??i?? “Bayern-Dusel” ai??i?? which brings them improbable last-minute wins. Whereas Gladbach, Dortmund, Leverkusen, Schalke, etc. have been known to suffer eleventh-hour heartbreaks, Bayern instead tend to abscond with the accolades seemingly against all odds, to the eternal consternation of believers in cosmic tragedy.

Popular resentment against the Bavarians runs so strong that some Bundesliga clubs have been known to impose a “Bayern ban” on their players. In 2011, Leverkusen famously refused to sell Arturo Vidal to Bayern (never mind that he had already agreed to personal terms) and instead shipped the midfielder abroad to Juventus for, supposedly, a reduced fee. Not that efforts like this has stopped Bayern from snapping up the Bundesliga’s best and brightest, with Manuel Neuer and Mario GAi??tze representing their latest coups.

So why are Bayern so successful? Luck may be a part of it, but two important factors are these: good planning, and good connections. Good planning in 1966 saw Bayern appoint Robert Schawn as the Bundesliga’s first professional business manager to prepare for the future. He was succeeded by Uli Hoeness, who has since grown Bayern into a household name across the world, in addition to winning 15 league titles and 7 domestic cups (triple the number of trophies before his reign).

So much of Bayern’s success can be traced back to Hoeness’ guidance. But the circumstances of his arrival at the club itself highlight Bayern’s other modus operandi: connections. Bayern fortuitously acquired the 18-year-old Uli Hoeness in 1970, despite the fact that he already had an arrangement with rivals 1860 Munich. What changed Hoeness’ mind? He wanted to follow Udo Lattek, his former youth national team coach, an unlikely candidate whom Bayern had hired at the behest of club legend Franz Beckenbauer.

After he hung up his boots in 1979 and became general manager, Uli Hoeness immediately continued the good Bayern tradition of connecting the right people to the club: he arranged for his brother Dieter Hoeness to make the move to Bavaria. The younger Hoeness went on to score 102 goals in 224 matches for Bayern, winning five Bundesliga titles as well as three DFB-Pokals during his prolific stint in Munich.

In addition to all this, Uli Hoeness’ influence also extended off the pitch. And it is at this point that our Bayern story rejoins Dortmund.

The most “humane” club in Europe

Markus Babbel, who left Munich in 2000, said of his former club that: “Among the top clubs in Europe, Bayern are the most humane. They have always shown generosity where there were problems.”

From personal help for struggling players or even fellow football clubs ai??i?? Bayern may be accused of many things, but stinginess is not one of them. When a long-term knee injury put Alan McInally out of action, Bayern offered him severance pay and supported the player until his contract ran out the following year. Uli Hoeness personally saw to the welfare of Lars Lunde who was injured in a car accident, and Hoeness also pulled Gerd MA?ller out of his slump, put him through alcohol rehabilitation, then offered him a job at Bayern.

Clubs have also benefited from Bayern’s aid. In 2003, Dortmund faced insolvency after the excessive spending of previous years. As a gesture of solidarity, Bayern loaned ai??i??2 million to their rivals to help Dortmund cover player salaries for a few months and nudge them along the road to recovery.

The same year, Bayern played a spontaneous benefit match for St. Pauli, which generated just enough revenue to spare the Hamburg club from having their license revoked due to poor finances. In 2006, Bayern spent ai??i??11 million to buy out 1860 Munich’s share in the Allianz Arena and thus saved their local rivals from going bankrupt.

Other clubs to have purportedly benefited from such financial aid include Hertha BSC and Dynamo Dresden. Bayern have also agreed to play a pro bono benefit match to help Hansa Rostock this summer.

There’s a certain air of benevolent despotism about it all, and Dortmund fans will certainly insist that Bayern’s loan helped them very little. Die Borussen later saw their publicly-traded shares plummet by 80% in 2005, forcing a 20% pay cut to all players as BVB stood on the brink of insolvency. Dortmund’s chief financial officer Thomas Tress pointed out that the club’s debt at the time was around ai??i??200 million; ai??i??2 million was a drop in the ocean, though a nice gesture.

“It’s very honorable from Bayern Munich, helping other clubs in such critical situations,” Tress said. “ai??i??2 million does not solve the whole problem, but it helped Borussia Dortmund.”

Since then Dortmund have curbed spending, focusing instead on youth and potential to produce the attractive, free-flowing side now taking Europe by storm. But with GAi??tze’s departure and Lewandowski also looking ready to depart, it remains to be seen how Dortmund’s new strategy will work for them in the long term. JA?rgen Klopp’s homegrown project is, like the players themselves, still very young.

All told, recent narratives of a youthful, homegrown Dortmund versus a big-spending Bayern are based on very recent histories. As two of Germany’s most storied clubs, Bayern and Dortmund deserve a richer and fairer representation encompassing the best as well as the worst of both. Every good story needs a villain ai??i?? but the very best stories have heroes on all sides.

 

**Some transfer data courtesy of transfermarket.co.uk. Fees represent conservative estimates.

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