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Nagendra Prasad Sarbadhikari, Dukhiram Mazumdar and Manmatha Nath Roy Chowdhury, these are three names which are not known to Indian football fans in the present day. Yet, it was these three gentlemen who spearheaded the spread of the game among the natives in India. If not for them we would never have Indian football as we know it.

Kick it to me, my boy. Kick it back!

The year was 1877. East India Company had relinquished the control of India as Queen Victoria took over as Empress of India and a tennis club in England had started a tournament in a place called Wimbledon. In September, the same year, a boy was returning home with his mother on a horse drawn carriage when he stopped to view some British soldiers playing a game with a round ball at the Calcutta FC ground. While he was watching the game the ball suddenly bounced towards him and one of the soldiers asked him to ai???kick it backai??? towards him. According to some more romantic accounts this was the definitive moment when an Indian kicked a football for the first time. According to Boria Mazumdar and Kaushik Bandopadhyay in ai???Goal-Less : Story of a Unique Footballing Nationai??? it is open to debate that if he was indeed the first Indian to kick the football but there is no doubt that that kick had far reaching impact. The name of this boy was Nagendra Prasad Sarbadhikari.

Sarbadhikari was a student in the eminent Hare School in North Kolkata. In his excitement to play the game he soon convinced his friends to buy the ball from Messrs. Manton & Co. in Bowbazar, Kolkata. A sizeable crowd gathered as the boys engaged in a game of kick about the next day in school premises. Among those gathered was a Presidency College Professor, G.A Stack. He pointed out to the boys that they had bought a rugby ball! Stack promised to gift them a football and also taught them the basic rules. And thus it started. It must be mentioned here that some of the friends who played with Sarbadhikari would also play an important part in Indian football, like his close friend Kalicharan Mitra who would captain as well as become an official in Sovabazar Club.

Nagendra Prasad Sarbadhikary

Despite being just ten years old Nagendra Prasad soon became the shining light in Indian football. He was a center-forward for his school team and often took part in matches against teams from Presidency College. Late 19th century was a period of transition in Bengal. There was a clear schism in the society between the new, radical thinkers and the orthodox sect, who were all too happy to cling on to ai???Babuai??? culture. The society was never too keen on activities that involved physical labour. Under such circumstances Sarbadhikariai??i??s sincerity towards the game soon found hundreds of converts. Football was now in vogue. He soon founded the Friends Club with Nagendra Mullick from the famous Mullck Royal Family. It was first of many clubs he founded as Presidency and Wellington Clubs soon came up under his influence.

Founded in 1884, the Wellington Club became Sarbadhikariai??i??s most important project by the time he left college. Soon trouble broke out in the club regarding inclusion of Moni Das, a player from lower castes. Nagendraprasad, who was trained in the ethos of British sportsmanship, refused to buckle down under pressure of narrow minded mentality. Wellington Club was divided within itself and its founder dissolved the club, to establish Sovabazar Club in 1887. Sovabazar Club was the first significant football club in India. They were the first ai???nativeai??? club to participate in proper football tournaments while their victory in 1882 Trades Cup remains the first case of a local club winning silverware in Indian football. Moni Das was one of the first inductees in the club. In a way, Sarbadhikari had also played a role in social reform via football.

When Nagendraprasad Sarbadhikari passed away on 17th January, 1940, India had already developed a bustling football scene. Tournaments like Durand and Rovers Cups and IFA Shield were toast of the nation and Indian clubs had toppled British regiment teams. Sarbadhikari was all too successful in his dream of spreading the game among masses.

First Talent Scout in Indian Football

There are a number of famous stories associated with the man who breathed life into famous Aryan Club of Kolkata. His nephew, Santosh ai???Choneai??? Mazumdar was afraid of booted British players. In order to remove this fear he tied Chone to a bed post and kicked him several times with a boots, saying, it doesnai??i??t hurt worse than this. After-wards he lovingly applied medicine to his nephew. With his fear conquered Chone became one of the superstars of pre-independence era. Unlike lot of the football administrators of his era, this man didnai??i??t focus on Kolkata only. Instead he would keep track of upcoming players. Despite being aged over 50 years he would hop on to his bicycle and travel to villages in order to gauge the talent of players he heard about. Despite being integral part of a bitter rival club, this man visited Mohun Baganai??i??s 1911 Shield winning team and gave them valuable tips before the semi-final clash. In an age where the concept of youth academy was unheard of Umeshchandra ai???Dukhiramai??? Mazumdar was the man who was responsible for bringing up young players.

Mazumdar was one of founding members Aryan Club in 1888 and was responsible for bringing up players like BD Chatterjee, Samad and Purna Das, all household names in that era. He was one of the first Indian football administrators who understood the importance of wearing boots. As a coach, Mazumdar placed a lot of emphasis on fitness and discipline. The great Bhaduri brothers of the 1911 IFA Shield winning team also learnt the basics of the game from Mazumdar. Dukhiram Mazumdar passed away in 1929, before he could see Aryan Club lift the IFA Shield title in 1940s. However, Aryan Club followed his lead in later years and concentrated in giving chances to young and unproven players.

Dukhiram Mazumdar

In one of his articles, veteran coach Amal Dutta once lamented the fact that Dukhiram Mazumdar never got the recognition he deserved. Dutta mentioned that his statue in Aryan Club tent lay without any maintenance. However, it must be mentioned here that Mazumdarai??i??s famous scouting tradition was kept alive by one of the longest running youth football schemes in West Bengal. Another legendary coach Achyut Banerjee started the Dukhiram Football Coaching Scheme on Mohun Bagan stadium premises in 1976. Over the years it was discontinued several times due to financial constraints but never completely stopped. Despite several problems, the coaching scheme continues till present day, taching kids between 4 and 16 the basics of football. Dozens of footballers have come out of this scheme like Ramkrishna AC captured the 2007 fifth division title in Kolkata with a team made up with footballers from Dukhiram Coaching scheme. A little more investment can see this venture stay true to Mazumdarai??i??s ambitions of involving footballers from provinces in the giant scheme of things.

Maharaja Who Excelled As An Administrator

In countries like Spain and Romania football flourished in its infancy under the watchful eyes of royalty. India also received patronage from royal families of Sovabazar, Santosh and Coochbehar in its early days. Several members of these royal families actively participated in football administration, among them the most significant name was Manmatha Nath Roy Chowdhury, the Maharaja of Santosh. Roy Chowdhury served as president of East Bengal club as well as IFA during his lifetime and oversaw two of the biggest crises in early days of Indian football. If not for Chowdhuryai??i??s tactful handling of those crises, Indian football would have taken an early body blow.

Hailing from Tangail region of present Bangladesh, Roy Chowdhury was a president of East Bengal when the club won the second division Calcutta Football League in 1924. East Bengal finished joint top with Cameron Highlanders B side, but was eligible for promotion since Highlanders A team was already part of first division. However, the rule that only two Indian clubs could participate in first division prevented East Bengal from promotion, as Mohun Bagan and Aryan Club were already there. IFA secretary Medleycott as well as Indian clubs strongly opposed East Bengalai??i??s entry but Roy Chowdhury pulled the right strings. The Red & Golds won a majority of votes in IFA general meeting, allowing them promotion, Medleycott would resign later. In next few years more such biased rules made by British administrators would be abolished, Roy Chowdhury had set a precedence followed by others.

The AIFA-IFA crisis in 1930s was one of the biggest issues faced by Indian football in that era. By mid ai???30s Mumbai (then Bombay) had rose up as a force to oppose Bengalai??i??s hegemony in Indian football. IFA meanwhile, wanted to expand its horizons and control Indian football on a whole. In late 1935 a meeting between all football bodies was convened in Darbhanga. Roy Chowdhury was selected as chairman of the convention. The convention was a disaster as other football bodies undermined his position and made it clear that they wanted to keep Bengal out of an all Indian football body. Roy Chowdhury left mid-way as All Indian Football Association was born on 21st Septemper, 1935. Roy Chowdhury and IFAai??i??s reputation as an organizer tilted press support towards them as all Indian media took up arms against AIFA.

By early 1936 it was clear that the AIFA couldnai??i??t function properly without IFA. Royal families had stayed out of AIFA due to treatment meted out to Maharaja of Santosh, so financial difficulties arose. Seeing an opportunity, IFA which was the only body recognized by FIFA and English FA proposed a new structure of AIFA, where IFA would have control but it would include other provinces as well. Roy Chowdhury garnered support of Army Sports Control Board, a major boost. Eventually, United Province football body also sided with IFA leaving a power conflict between Delhi-Bombay and IFA. A war of letters broke out between Mr Turner of Western India Football Association and Roy Chowdhury. The Maharaja of Santosh wanted two representatives from Calcutta and two more from rest of Bengal in an all India board but met with opposition from others. Finally, a compromise was reached in 1937 as the All Indian Football Federation was born.

Maharaja of Santosh

While Manmatha Nath Roy Chowdhuryai??i??s efforts in mentioned crises deserve applause, his handling of the Calcutta Football League crisis of 1939 received some criticism in that era. Mohammedan SC, then defending champions, East Bengal as well as Kalighat Club withdrew from the league that season in protest of unfair treatment from IFA. The problem was solved after one season as the clubs came back into the fold.

The Maharaja of Santosh has been immortalized in Indian football thanks to the Santosh trophy. When the inter-state championship was started in 1940s, IFA donated the trophy to AIFF, and it was named in honour of the man who served Indian football with distinction for a long time.

Sources: History of Indian Football by Nirmal Nath, Goal Less by Boria Mazumdar, Kaushik Bandopadhyay, Stories From Indian Football by Jaydeep Basu, Ekadoshe Surjodoy by Rupak Saha. All pictures courtesy of History of Indian Football by Nirmal Nath.

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