Compared to all the other outfield positions over the past 15 years, the role of the center back has changed relatively little. The near future could see a profound change in the deployment of center backs, as players integral to defense and attack. However, some other changes may need to take place to facilitate the rebirth of the old-fashioned libero.

Jonathan Wilson ends his tactical review of 2013Ai??discussing the reemergence of the back three in top level football. While he talks about why it has come back in Italy and why it has been an attractive option for two English sides, the third model he presents is the most interesting of all. The back three ensures that at least one center back is free. To make the most of having a player with time and space, one should field a center back with skills in attack. Briefly in his piece, and more so in his piece on Bleacher Report, Wilson states that center back pairs that often see one central forward could also contain an individual who can step out from the back line and launch an attack. While there is an opportunity for the return of the old-fashioned libero, some other trends may need to arise to facilitate its resurgence.

The Back Three

Juventus' back three not only gives them stability in the center of defense, but also provides Leonardo Bonucci the time and space to launch attacks with his passing.

Juventus’ back three not only gives them stability in the center of defense, but also provides Leonardo Bonucci the time and space to launch attacks with his passing.

When a back three is playing against a lone center forward, there are two spare men at the back. In this case, it is easier for a manager to field a more creative player at center back and give him license to venture forward, compared to having such a player in back four. Even if the center back is caught high up the pitch when possession is lost, two center backs are matched up against the one center forward. This allows one to mark and the other to cover.

In fact, when playing a back three at the highest level, it may be necessary to have a center back who is comfortable on the ball, and comfortable going forward in attack. Why? Because keeping a back three a back three against a lone center forward means that the side is outnumbered somewhere else. They have over-allocated resources to that area of the pitch. When Liverpool played Arsenal earlier this season, none of Liverpoolai??i??s center backs advanced into midfield or went wide and a little further up the pitch. Effectively, Liverpool allocated three defenders to defending one player. As this happened, Arsenal annihilated Liverpool in midfield on route to a 2-0 victory. Had one of the Liverpool center backs been willing and able to adopt a more advanced position as a central or wide midfielder, they could have mitigated Arsenalai??i??s advantage while sacrificing little when it came to defending Olivier Giroud.

So, if the back three does increase in popularity, especially among the best sides, we may see the rise of the attack-minded center back. Though, it could be that an increase in center backs who are proficient in attack leads to increased usage of the back three. As with many tactical innovations, a desire to implement a system or the desire to best utilize a particular skill-set can drive change.

An Attacking Central Defender in a Back Four

That is the case for having an attack minded center back in a back three, but what about a back four? Playing against a lone center forward, sides that play a back four have one spare man. Often this spare man covers, giving the marker the ability to defend with less exposure to risk. At the same time, this spare man is also a spare man in when the side has possession. However, unlike the case where the there are two spare men with a back three, there is a potential lack of cover if one of the center backs in the back four charges forward in attack. Therefore, managers are much less likely to give a center back license to rampage forward when it leaves the other center back 1-on-1 with the opposing center forward. That does not mean that the role of the old libero will not be seen in back fours. It means that some other elements need to arise to make it more likely.

When a center back pair comes up against a lone center forward, one of them will have time and space to a degree than no other player on the pitch enjoys.

When a center back pair comes up against a lone center forward, one of them will have time and space to a degree than no other player on the pitch enjoys.

The Super Defender

Letai??i??s get this one out of the way. If a side has a defender that can be left 1-on-1 with opposing center forwards, then that allays much of the fear of using the spare center back to attack. That is what amazing defensive player allows a side to do. They allow a side to divest resources allocated to defending that space, against that opponent, and allow those resources to be better allocated for the team to win (or draw if that is the desired outcome). They can allocate more resources to defending other important spaces and players and/or allocate more resources towards attack, as the marginal benefit of doing so outweighs the marginal cost. Since truly special players arise randomly, it is unlikely that this is the avenue by which the attacking center back becomes more commonplace.

Swappable Roles: The Defensive Midfielder/Central Defender Hybrid

One element that could help the attack-minded center back return to greater prominence is the use of defensive midfielders at center back. Players like Javi Martinez, Sergio Busquets, and Javier Mascherano have been moved from defensive midfield to center back to give their clubs a more creative player at the position. In an age of increasing universality, it may be that the line between the deepest lying central midfielder and the center back gets blurred next. It may be that the mostly likely way for the attacking center back to make a comeback is to field two defensive midfielders, one at center back and one in a holding role.

If one of the biggest issues of the attacking center back is the lack of cover when he goes forward, then having a defensive midfielder who can drop into a center back position could alleviate that fear. This way, when the center back advances into midfield, the back four can still be maintained, keeping a spare central defender to defend the lone center forward. In this scenario, when possession is lost, they can keep their new positions, allowing the defense to organize more rapidly, compared to a side that needs to get its high-up-the-pitch center back into a center back position to properly defend. When possession is regained, the same pattern can happen, with the two players swapping roles.

Players like Mascherano, Martinez, and Busquets have all made the transition from midfielder to center back. Maybe that is the path most likely to usher in widespread use of an attacking center back.

Players like Mascherano, Martinez, and Busquets have all made the transition from midfielder to center back. Maybe that is the path most likely to usher in widespread use of an attacking center back.

The concept of rotating midfield trios and midfield duos swapping roles already exists. This may be the next place for rotation/swappable roles to arise. If a team has players willing and able to do so, they potentially sacrifice little defensively in order to gain the ability to take advantage of valuable time and space afforded to a position.

This transition from defensive midfielder to center back has been observed, so there the knowledge to coach players to make this transition is available. Therefore, there exists a known way to produce this type of player if youth systems fail to produce enough options to experiment with attacking center backs.

The other aspect needed is chemistry between the two defensive midfielder/center backs with the static center back. The static center back needs to understand how the other member of the pair will react to the passage of play. The convenient part of this method is that both players are expected to fully take on the roles of a midfielder or a central defender at any point throughout the match. Therefore, fewer changes need to be made to the overall structure of the starting XI in order to get both hybrid players experience playing with the static center back either in training or in matches. This makes the cost of developing such a system relatively low compared to switching to a back three or the next potential avenue this piece will discuss.

A More Equal Sharing of Responsibilities between the Fullback and the Center Back

Another adaptation could be fielding a fullback who is willing and able to sit and cover. When a back four comes up against a front pair, each center back is occupied. In order to provide cover for the center backs, a fullback would sit back. When a 4-4-2 came against a 4-4-2, both fullbacks have time and space, so one could sit while the other one had license to go forward. Arsenalai??i??s Invincibles side of 2003-2004 was an example of this. They fielded attack-minded Ashley Cole at left back (no team may have attacked down the left as exclusively as that Arsenal side), while fielding the underappreciated Lauren on the right, giving Arsenal increased defensive stability, and cover for the two center backs.

A return to less adventurous fullbacks at the highest level might need to reappear, in order for attack-minded center backs to return. One could see it as the need to balance the side. Instead of increasing the number of attacking players, there is a transfer of attacking responsibility from the fullback to the center back.

However, given that attacking fronts are rather fluid, especially at the highest level, at any time, either the fullback or the center back may be the player with time and space in possession. So while one could field a fullback who is a superb defender, but uncomfortable on the ball, it could possibly make the side just as predictable in possession if they fielded a marauding fullback and a ai???no nonsenseai??? center back. Unless the side has excellent movement and technical ability, they risk a lack of width unless they field a more traditional winger.

There was a time where attacking center backs like Gaetano Scirea were more common on the best sides and were crucial to their sides in defense and attack.

There was a time where attacking center backs like Gaetano Scirea were more common on the best sides and were crucial to their sides in defense and attack.

If this is the route one must take, the cost of fielding an attacking center back may prove too great, given these sacrifices. While the defensive shape and organization are present, potentially increasing the rigidity of the team shape is exactly what one does not want in attack. This is the battle that happens in every football match; the side without the ball looks to remain organized, keep their shape, and limit space/options; the side with the ball looks to break that organization, break the shape, maximize space/options, and often this is best done as an amorphous, unconstrained, unpredictable unit. If fielding an attacking center back makes side more predictable overall, then it fails in its intended purpose to improve the side when in possession.

So for clubs to more readily adopt this solution in order to employ an attacking center back, there needs to be less of a cost. The solution fits with the increasingly prevalent universality of footballers. Instead of fielding two players with distinct and different roles (one has license to attack, one primarily defends), field players who can temporarily swap attacking and defending responsibilities.

When the fullback goes forward, the center back stays home. This is how most teams operate. For a side fielding an attacking center back, when the center back makes a forward run with the ball, the fullback makes a counter run, coming deep and inside a bit, positioning himself as a wide center back. This means that the fullback needs to be comfortable defending as a center back and as a fullback. It also means that the static center back and the fullback develop communication and chemistry needed to play in a center back pairing.

This is essential, particularly in the English game, if the attacking central defender will increase in prominence. On Monday Night Football, Gary Neville talked about the English center back culture, how they desire to have their fellow defenders stay near them, because they desire security. Ai??While the security of a straight back four is not available for many center backs nowadays, given the prevalence of attacking fullbacks, center back pairs still rely heavily on communication and knowing how each other will react to any situation.

To satiate this need, it may take a change in how fullbacks are developed. Instead of marking a potential fullback as a fullback, mark him as a defender on that side. Develop his ability to operate as a fullback and a center back on that side. On the senior team, train with oneai??i??s normal center back pairing and with the fullback-center back pairing, to develop that communication and chemistry. In matches against poorer sides (obviously a luxury with greater availability to better sides), instead of fielding oneai??i??s normal center back pairing, make the center back pairing the fullback and the static center back.

Obviously, it takes more effort to develop this type of player and this degree of chemistry in the back line, but so does any system that increases the fluidity and unpredictability of the attack. For example, a false nine system takes a large investment of hours and effort to develop, in order to use properly. It is not something one throws together in the days leading up to a match. Just because there are costs, does not mean that an action or tactic is prohibitive, so long as the benefits outweigh them.

The Need for a Change in Thinking

David Luiz - Chelsea defender | Premier League Talking Points

Some footballing cultures would play David Luiz as a midfielder, but those who embraced his footballing ability at the center back position allow themselves to reap the greatest reward.

While these are a few paths that could lead to a greater prevalence of attacking central defenders, the safer bet is that their rise does not occur at all. There are always other tactical innovations available to sides, and those may be the sides choose to employ, because they offer more benefit relative to the cost. So, even though the environment has the potential for the return of the attacking center back, the footballing world may go down a different path, and the attacking central defender may remain a novelty in football. It may not even be a new or different tactical innovation that prevents this, either. It could be an older, rather inflexible concept of how a central defender should operate.

If a footballing culture looks down upon young defender because he breaks from the back line to win the ball back, tries to play a defense splitting pass that may not come off, or launches an attack with a dribbling run, then how can one expect a player to continue to do so? How can he be expected to learn how to hone his attacking skills when his coaches are telling him to stick to defending? Maybe now is a time for many football cultures to reevaluate their views on central defenders. In an era where center forwards need to do more than score goals, where there is a greater desire for midfielders to be able to defend and attack, maybe it is time that central back position is not looked upon not as a position that just defends, but as a position for a complete footballer.

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