December 15 1995 — a day that changed football forever, all thanks to one Jean-Marc Bosman.

While pretty much every football fan has heard of the Bosman law in the context of transfers, the man – Jean Marc Bosman – and the process leading up to it isn’t nearly as well known, as well as the extent to which it affected football. December 15, 1995 was a seminal day in football history; in fact it’d be an understatement to claim there’s football pre-December 15, 1995 and football post-December 15, 1995, nothing was ever the same.

Background

Before the Bosman law came to be, football transfers were very different. Even players whose contracts were about to run out were ‘forced’ to stay at their club as long as the latter kept paying them the same wages they were paying before. In other words, the power was almost entirely in the clubs’ hands, no matter how many transfer request a player submitted if the club refused to sell him he was forced to continue. This of course stopped the richest clubs from monopolizing the top talent and maintained balance across European football; it also kept the wages down as the players had very limited power to negotiate their own contracts. It allowed clubs such as Ajax to easily keep the players they developed at their academy and build competitive teams with them. It also allowed national federations and UEFA to put a limit on the number of foreign players each team could have; in UEFA competitions, a maximum of three foreign players could be called for each match’s squad.

This was the case in 1990, when Jean-Marc Bosman, a free agent, wanted a move out of FC Liege to French club Dunkirk. The problem was FC Liege put a transfer fee on him that effectively stopped the move from occurring. Bosman then t00k action against the football authorities in Belgium and Europe, claiming that the rules in place for payment of transfer fees for free agents were against the European Union’s regulations that grant its citizens freedom of movement within employment. After five years of decisions and appeals came a final decision, which changed football forever. On December 15, 1995, the European Court of Justice ruled that it’d become illegal to charge transfer fees for free agents wanting to leave to a club within European union nations and that clubs could field as many players from European Union nations as they wished – the quotas on foreign players could only apply to non-EU citizens.

The Aftermath

The football transfer market was never the same after the Bosman ruling. If clubs held all the power before, now players hold the power as they are able to negotiate contracts with other clubs and leave once their contracts run out without their previous club being compensated financially. This led to a massive increase in transfer fees – as clubs are often almost forced to sell their assets if they don’t want to end up losing them for free – and especially player wages, who keep reaching more and more unimaginable figures. When a player like Cristiano Ronaldo – with all he offers both on and off the pitch – sits down with Real Madrid to discuss a new contract, it’s not really much of a negotiation: Ronaldo asks and Real Madrid gives it to him. The players, especially star players, hold all the bargaining power.

This has gradually led to a situation where a select few clubs can monopolize all of the top talent since only they can afford the transfer fee and wages. Historic clubs from smaller markets like Portugal and The Netherlands can no longer be consistently competitive in Europe; a club such as Ajax is now unable to tie up their best prospects and is doomed to lose them very early. National leagues are only becoming more and more predictable and even the Champions League is becoming more and more of an exclusive club, the gulf between the rich and the poor only keeps increasing every year. It is safe to say that the Bosman ruling is the defining moment of modern football, everything we see today has only been made possible after total freedom of movement was enforced on football.

Whether the overall impact of the Bosman case has been positive or negative for football is entirely subjective; while some will rightly point that it’s a positive that clubs can’t keep hold of players against their will and that players have freedom of work/movement, others will point out that it led to football becoming more monopolized and money-driven, a game where loyalty is rare and mercenaries are aplenty, which would also be hard to dispute. It was hard to imagine at the time that a court case to settle a transfer of a relatively unknown player from FC Liege to Dunkirk would become such a seminal moment in football history, but the name Bosman will be associated with football forever (for better or for worse) in the same way that the names of Maradona or Pele are.

But what happened to the man who made footballers all around the world millionaires? Well, things didn’t turn out too well for him; ever since winning the landmark court case in 1995, Jean-Marc Bosman has had a quite troubled personal life, having to battle depression and alcoholism (which led to him being taken to court for domestic violence in 2011), as well as money problems – he’s currently living off benefits of the Belgium government. Every day he has to hear about his name associated to how some player is going to be earning millions at Barcelona, Real Madrid, Manchester United, while he himself barely has enough money to get by. It’d be an exaggeration to suggest Bosman is a martyr since when he took his club to court his motives were more than likely fully selfish but he’s still a man who made footballers millionaires and didn’t get any benefit off it, except having his named etched forever in the history of the world’s biggest sport.

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