Amidst a raging debate between the purists and the modern football supporter, goal-line technology is set to make its World Cup debut next year in Brazil.

Like all its predecessors, the FIFA World Cup 2010, hosted in South Africa, was no stranger to controversy. From worker strikes to a last minute Luis Suarez hand-ball that potentially prevented Ghana from qualifying for the next round, it had it all. But probably the most talked about incident of them all was the goal that never was.

The Goal-Line Technology Debate - Frank Lampard's disallowed goal against Germany was where it started

Lampard’s disallowed goal against Germany was where the debate gained momentum

The incident occurred in the match between England and Germany in the round of 16. After going down two goals, England swiftly pulled one goal back and in the momentum, in the 39th minute, Frank Lampard took a shot at goal. The ball pinged off the bar and landed across the goal-line (by almost a yard, which was confirmed by replays) before bouncing back out into the hands of German goalkeeper Manuel Neuer. The referee and his assistants did not recognise the goal, and although England lost to Germany 4-1 on their way to an exit from the round, they were left ruing what could have been had the goal been allowed. Going into the half time break with the scores at 2-2 would have left the prize still to be played for. Instead England started the second half with a goal down and their backs to the wall. A premature exit from the pinnacle event in international football did not sit well with the English FA and thus began a major propaganda for goal-line technology to be included in the competition to assist the referees and match officials. Goal-line technology was introduced last year in one of the lower leagues before making its first Premier League appearance this season at Arsenal’s Emirates Stadium.

To understand the argument around goal-line technology, it is necessary to understand the technology first.

Why goal-line technology?

During the course of a game, referees and other officials are constantly moving with the play. Amidst a goal mouth melee, the referee not only has to watch for a goal being scored but also ensure no player commits a foul. This often becomes too much to handle as the referee’s attention is understandably divided. Another reason for missed goal calls (and often wrong offside calls) is the parallax error. That is, if the linesman is not directly in line with the goal-line, his angle of viewing influences his perception of the position of the with reference to the goal-line and he cannot make an accurate call. FIFA had also investigated the possibility of keeping specific officials at the goal-line for the sole purpose of adjudicating the goal but even this was not successful since, with a lot of bodies in the box, the visibility is often completely obscured making it difficult to judge a goal.

Types of goal-line technology

From a variety of options available, FIFA is primarily favoring two technologies:

Goal-Line Technology Debate - Hawkeye technology in use in the Kremlin Cup 2012

Hawkeye technology in use in the Kremlin Cup 2012 (tennis)

GoalRef

Developed by a German company, this technology relies on magnetic induction. A low frequency magnetic field is generated around the goal and monitored by coils. A passive electronic circuit is embedded between the outer leather and inner inflatable layers. Basic Physics laws govern that when the electronic circuit passes through the magnetic field, it produces a distortion in the latter. The system monitoring the magnetic field detects this distortion and a message is sent in real time to a special wrist watch worn by the referee. The watch vibrates and displays a message that a goal was scored.

Hawk-Eye

In use for over a decade in cricket and other sports, Hawk-Eye is now finally making its way to football. The system essentially depends on predicting the path of a moving ball. It depends on a set of images from multiple cameras and timing data to build a predicted path for the ball. While this does not directly identify whether the ball has crossed into the goal area, it can predict depending on the time and position of the ball whether it could have crossed into the goal area before being pulled back or bouncing out.

Public opinion on goal-line technology

One of the most important benefits obviously is in adjudging whether or not a goal was scored. Most football enthusiasts know how much of a difference a goal and its timing make to the outcome of a match. Teams have been known to score an early goal or two and then sit back and defend the lead absorbing pressure from the opponents for the remainder of the match. A disallowed goal is the ultimate de-motivator for the team that has toiled to create and score it. The technology would also improve the accuracy of the match officials, who are after all only human and thus subject to errors. It takes a lot of pressure off the referee allowing him to concentrate on the more human aspects of refereeing such as calling a foul, playing an advantage or flagging offsides.

The biggest criticism of this technology comes from the purist camp who see this as attempting to take away from the human aspect of the game. Many fans still cherish the debates that stem from bad refereeing decisions and how they could have affected the outcome of a match. Many also believe that this in a way diminishes the power and authority of the referee since it is, in a way, making the decision for him.

Status of goal-line technology

Currently, the technology is being tested across the world by FIFA and member FAs. For instance, Arsenal’s Emirates Stadium has been picked as one of the venues for this test. FIFA’s internal testing has been successful and they have given the green light to include this technology in the FIFA World Cup to be held in Brazil in 2014. The most important aspects emphasised by FIFA for all goal-line technologies is instantaneous goal detection and accuracy of detection. Referees involved in the testing of the system have expressed confidence in the system’s capabilities. Very importantly the system is very objectively signalling whether or not a goal was scored. It does not detect who scored it, whether it was offside or not or even whether the originating free kick or penalty was a fair one. This way the referee is still the person in control making the calls. He however has a very efficient assistant who constantly keeps an eye on goal.

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