ai???Working class men as a marketing sector consume a limited range of media forms, so choosing to advertise in televised football, or sponsor football clubs or competitions is a rational choice.ai??? ai??i?? Garry Whannel

Beer, football and Working class men are three inseparable elements of English culture. Alcohol companies have been sponsoring on football for a long time of which beer is very popular amongst the football fans. The working class men are easy targets as they have less spending power and limit their spending on a narrow range of commodities and services. Tobacco is also popular amongst the people of UK, but advertisements on it are barred, hence advertisers have looked to brewers as prime targets.

Match made in heaven?

Match made in heaven?

.

The trio of beer, football and working class community are important elements in a well established cultural configuration that has evolved through cultural rituals, practices and organizational forms for over a century. Not only had the working class group filled the stadia creating an electrifying atmosphere but they were the heartbeat of English football that epitomizes passion, pride and bull dog spirit. They were the main target audience for buying commodities that were advertised through television. However, that cultural establishment got a huge setback when these working class men became a ai???high riskai??i?? target in the ai??i??60 era. Those groups used to create troubles in the terrace and going to watch a football match became a risky affair. It was the darkest phase of English football- the fantasy yet crude chapters of ai???folk devilsai??i?? of football hooliganism. It created a suffocating atmosphere of tension and hostility, which not only led to a slow decadence but tarnished the image of English football for a long period of time.

It is both sad and upsetting that football needed the heinous, catastrophic and tragic incident of Hillsborough to turn things around in England. The transformation underwent in the 90ai??i??s era when theAi??re-brandingAi??of football took place under the control of Sky and Premier Leagueai??i??s alliance, bringing unprecedented riches into the game.

The association of beer with Sky is noteworthy here. You might have noticed a small icon of beer appearing at Sky Sports channels in the far corner. Football viewing has never been so enjoyable in Sky era and there is an attempt (indirectly may be) to revive the yesteryearai??i??s passion in a more sophisticated way. The logo symbolizes ai???legitimacyai??i?? of the product where the broadcasters had to satisfy the demands of commercial subscribers but it also connotes the relationship and establishment of holy trinity ai??i?? beer, football and male bonding.

Historical Background

Alcohol has a long standing relationship with sport and social class in United Kingdom. Breweries had a close association with the working class, spectators and football associations, while distilleries have had closer relationship with middle class groups and been involved into games like rugby union and cricket.

During 1880 -1950ai??i??s, when football was played professionally, it was the working class group who used to play and the teams were mostly funded by relatively local businessman. Liverpool Football Club, for instance, was founded by a businessman cum brewer named John Houlding. Beer was their first choice and it became an early sort of sponsor in those days. With time football became more popular and from a UK-centric game it turned global. The traditional culture of working men watching the game is now replaced with more homogeneous viewing throughout the globe.

Social Transformation

The Post Second World War period saw rise of new community in England. The previous community that encouraged pub culture was undergoing re-composition, which Phil Cohen describes as ai???Sub cultural conflict and working class community.ai??i??

The outlook of people about the game changed. ItAi??didn’tAi??happen overnight. An evolution took place with the emergence of Rock and Roll culture. Football is inextricably linked with culture, politics and society. Thereby, any slow turbulence in cultural sphere left an impact on football as well. Young workers earned pocket-full money, teenagers with a ai???who caresai??i?? attitudes resulted in a wide generation gap. These all culminated in a downward trajectory that influenced football in a big way.

What about the working class men who loved football to death? Well, their stylistic behavior oscillated between two extremes of societal life. Some section followed the new wave of high-brow culture (mod, casual and new romantic) while another sect got involved in downward stratum (rocker, skinhead, punk). No wonder, why football in the 70ai??i??s reached the nadir of pessimism.

The players were not immune to this radical shifts going outside. Players, who came mostly from working class couldnai??i??t stop avoiding consumption of alcohols like they did before. But, the game demanded more professionalism. Sir Alex Ferguson found that the drinking culture system within Old Trafford was affecting a playerai??i??s mental fortitude. He was new to this system but took a firm decision in getting rid of few senior players who had drinking problems. Similar sort of evidence had been noted with Arsenal too in the early 90ai??i??s.

Football And Pub Culture

It was in the 1940ai??i??s that English football drew more audience like any other popular communal leisure activities. The growth of television and rising affluence meant that football, like the pub and entertainment world (cinema and dance hall), suffered a dramatic decline in audience that lasted for about 30 years.

The pub culture

.

Since 1980, the English football crowds have steadily risen. One of the main factors can be that the new young generation didn’t enjoy watching television as a cultural form and spent time by going to the field.

But the development of football had already begun as early as 1960. Regular television highlights, action replay, slow motion and colour were introduced, which gave an aesthetic appeal. 1970s was the era when advertising and sponsorship revenue began to grow and in the 80’s live broadcasting was introduced with advertisement featured between the breaks.

But what halted the growth was the constant violence that resulted in series of stadium disasters. 1985- Fire in Bradford City’s wooden stand killed 56 people, the Heysel disaster at Brussels killed 39 people and at Hillsborough 96 souls never returned due to severe overcrowding at one section of the ground.

Later, with the growth of sophisticated yet safe mode of ‘new football cult’ (with all-seated stadia, surveillance, executive boxes, and the promotion of a ai???familyai??? atmosphere), violent behaviors were marginalized. A new wave of pub culture was established. Ubiquity in live football matches meant people would go to pubs in Saturday evenings to refresh themselves. It brought same excitement as going to the field. Finally, the trio of men, beer and football had been re-forged in England.

Present Scenario

Whannel notes that “Beer is losing its market share as young drinkers favour alcopops, shorts, and other options, whilst the English middle classes switch to wine in greater numbers. According to figures released by the British Beer and Pub Association (BBPA) in November 2007 there has been a 49 per cent slump in sales of pints of beer in pubs since the post-war peak year of 1979.ai???

Smoking in public places is already banned in England and there has been demand for higher taxes on alcohol and complete ban on alcohol advertising. Conversely, it is the alcohol products that are fetching football a lot of money. Carling Beer was the sponsor of the English Premier League for a long time. Carlsberg and Heineken are some of the popular beers that are official sponsors of the UEFA Champions League. Beer has become a dominant global brand. For that matter, Asian Beers like Tiger, Singha and Cobra are sponsoring top football clubs all around the world. Thailand’s Chang beer is the official sponsor of Everton Football Club for a long time. It has now reached a situation where the success of a brand is dependent on the success of a football club/team.

Football is a common manai??i??s game. It is better enjoyed watching in groups. A little leg pull, a little banter, dancing and singing together are its common practices with a pint of beer, the common denominator. Nowadays, there are so many means of entertainment but back then in early 20th century, for a railway worker, coal-smith what can be a better source of entertainment after a long weekai??i??s hard work than going to watch a football match with a pint of beer in hand? Watching football and enjoying beer (both cheaply available) was a heavenly feeling. Thatai??i??s why the bonding of the trio was unshakable.

Probably, thatai??i??s why people in UK are now so fond of this pub culture. Not everyone can afford to meet the astronomical price of the match ticket. Rather than watching at home (a very boring feeling) itai??i??s better to watch the game with a group of people (supporters, fans) or friends on a pub where you can enjoy beer as well creating a mini ground atmosphere. In the UK, alcohol consumption and the union of beer and football is seen as a highly attractive and seductive, yet socially conservative force.

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