Read First Part of The Article Here

 

Herbert Chapmanai??i??s Arsenal team dominated the league from 1930 ai??i?? 1940. Despite his sad demise in Ai??1934, the team that he built and the playing style that he incorporated within the club saw the Gunners go through one of their most successful phases in the clubai??i??s history. Between 1930 and 1940, Arsenal won the league 5 times (being runner-up once) and the FA cup twice (with one finalist spot).

From 1950 onwards, Arsenal entered a lull period. After the Gunners won the league in 1952-53 season under Tom Whittaker, they were champions just once more in 1970-71 under Bertie Mee. That is, until a certain George Graham arrived on the scene in 1986. George Graham was seen as a long-term replacement for Don Howe, who had been temporarily replaced by Steve Burtenshaw.

Two lynchpin of Arsenal's success during 1990s - George Graham and Tony Adams

 

Here, we will take a look at the tactical evolution that Arsenal underwent under Graham, during his stint from 1986 to 1995.

First Silverware After 8 Years

Former Gunner George Grahamai??i??s managerial success at Millwall didnai??i??t go unnoticed, as he was appointed as a long-term replacement for Don Howe. Arsenal were on the verge of mid-table mediocrity when Graham took over. The first thing that Graham did was to install discipline in the team, which would become a hallmark of his era. He was hugely influential, so much so that Arsenal were top of the league by December of 1986. Arsenal went on to finish fourth in the league in his first season at the helm.

In that season, Arsenal also went on to win the League Cup, beating Liverpool in the final. It is a match which is remembered for the wonderful comeback by the Gunners, after Ian Rush had scored the opening goal for Liverpool. Two goals from Charlie Nicholas meant that Arsenal won its first silverware in over 8 years. Graham used the 4-4-2 formation very effectively to defeat a Liverpool side that was technically much more superior to the Gunners. A young Tony Adams and David Oai??i??Leary formed the backbone in the Arsenal defense. The wing backs were tucked in, and they hardly made any contributions going forward. Graham knew Liverpool had a very potent attack, with Ian Rush and Paul Walsh forming a dangerous pairing. Steve Williams and Paul Davis were both used more like holding midfielders, while the attacking play was mostly left for David Rocastle, Niall Quinn and Charlie Nicholas. He held his trump cards in the sidelines, with Perry Groves and Michael Thomas on the bench. Here is a look at the formation and tactics used by George Graham to beat the strong Liverpool side. Incidentally, this was the first time that Liverpool lost a match after Ian Rush scored a goal.

 

Arsenal's formation in the 1987 League Cup final against Liverpool (4-2-2-2/4-4-2) (Dotted lines are defensive runs made by the players and complete lines are attacking runs made by the players)

 

The following season Graham rang in the changes, as he sold the old rear guards of the team and conducted some astute business in the transfer market. He brought in Nigel Winterburn, Alan Smith, Lee Dixon, Steve Bould and Kevin Richardson. Graham was intent on building a strong defense, which was his first priority. Arsenal made steady progress in the league table, and reached the league cup final once again, this time against Luton Town. Luton took an early lead and like last yearai??i??s final, the Gunners once again made a comeback through goals from Hayes and Smith, only to be beaten by two late goals. Arsenal failed to win any silverware that season, but their progress was well noted. In Nigel Winterburn, Lee Dixon, Tony Adams and David Oai??i??Leary, Arsenal had a defense that would dominate for nearly a decade. Contrary to popular notion and chants ofAi??ai???Boring Boring Arsenalai???, the Gunners had a group of exciting attacking players in their ranks. Grahamai??i??s defensive stability, which provided the base of his team, was topped with attackers like Thomas, Alan Smith, Rocastle and Merson. Alan Smith went to win the Golden Boot in 1988-89 and 1990-91 season, leading the attack with aplomb.

“It’s Up For Grabs Now”

 

Grahamai??i??s tactical cognition and hard work finally brought results in 1988-89 season, as Arsenal won the league after 18 long years. The league title was won under dramatic circumstances. Liverpool and Arsenal met each other in the last game of the season at Anfield. Arsenal had to win the match by at least two goals to win the league and deny Liverpool a double.Ai?? In what is regarded as one of the most spectacular endings in the history of English League football, Michael Thomas scored the second goal for Arsenal in the final minute of the match to clinch the title. The Gunners were the underdogs going into this match against a Liverpool side who were in great form. Everyone expected Liverpool to win this comfortably, but Graham had some tactical surprises in store for them. Arsenal needed to win by a 2-goal margin and hence were expected to come out attacking the Merseyside team, but surprisingly Graham opted to play with 5 defenders in a formation that effectively kept out Liverpool from scoring.

Tony Adams partnered Steve Bould in the center of the defense, with David Oai??i??Leary playing as a sweeper. Nigel Winterburn and Lee Dixon completed the back five. Placing Oai??i??Leary as sweeper turned out to be a master stroke, as this enabled the full backs to push forward and restrict Liverpoolai??i??s wing play. Arsenal broke up every Liverpool attack, with Steve Bould having a fine game in defense. The Gunners counter-attacked effectively with long balls for their wingers to chase. Unlike common perception, the Arsenal manager didnai??i??t go all out on attack; in fact, he wanted to make sure of a clean sheet in the first place. Perry Groves later quoted Graham in his autobiography

If we concede an early goal we’re fu****. What I want to do is go in at half-time at 0-0, then I’ll be happy.”

The four-man midfield of Arsenal consisted of Paul Merson, David Richardson, Michael Thomas and David Rocastle, with Smith playing alone up-front. Merson played a much deeper role from the midfield, which allowed other midfielders to join Smith in attack. Liverpoolai??i??s more traditional 4-4-2 formation struggled to make any inroads as the game progressed towards a stale mate. More shock was in store for the leaders, as Ian Rush couldnai??i??t continue playing due to an injury.

 

The formation used by Graham in the first half of the final match of the league against Liverpool in 1988-89 season (5-4-1) (Dotted lines are defensive runs made by the players and complete lines are attacking runs made by the players)

 

In the second half, Arsenal scored an early goal through Alan Smith. Having got the goal, Graham changed his tactics to a more attacking 4-4-2 formation, with Perry Groves and Martin Hayes replacing Steve Bould and Paul Merson. In what was voted as the greatest moment in Arsenal history, Michael Thomas scored from a wonderful counter attack in extra time, with just 25 seconds to go for the final whistle. It was a goal that would change the fortunes of both clubs. Grahamai??i??s genius tactics and belief in his players gave the supporters a story they can tell their grand children.

The Goal which won the title in 1989 season. (Dotted lines are forward runs made by the players and complete lines are passes made by the players)

 

After failing to win the title that season, Liverpool have won just one more league title until now, while Arsenal made their way back to the top of English football. Michael Thomasai??i??s goal signaled the end of an era of Liverpool domination in English Football. The goal was famously described by the commentator Brian Moore, the following words will remain immortal forever

ai???Arsenal come streaming forward now in surely what will be their last attack. A good ball by Dixon, finding Smith, for Thomas, charging through the midfield. Thomas, it’s up for grabs now!ai???

 

European Success

 

Arsenal couldnai??i??t retain the title next season, as Liverpool won the league. Graham knew he still had few pieces of the puzzle missing. He brought in reinforcements, signing David Seaman, Ian Wright and Andres Limper. In 1990-91, Arsenal went on to win the league once again, beating their nearest rival by seven points, and that too after two points had been deducted from their tally for a brawl in a match against Manchester United. They lost just one game that season while conceding just 18 goals throughout the campaign. Arsenal entered their first European competition for over 20 years in 1991-92 season. Though they didnai??i??t win any silverware that season, they played some scintillating attacking football, scoring 92 goals in all competitions. In 1992-93 season Arsenal won the unique double of FA Cup and League Cup. Arsenal won the 1994 European Cup Winners Cup, beating Parma in the final. They also reached the final of the European Super Cup, but were defeated by AC Milan over two legs.

The following year, George Graham was sacked under controversial circumstances after 9 years in charge of the club. It was discovered that he had accepted an illegal A?425,000 payment from Norwegian agent Rune Hauge when Arsenal brought John Jensen in 1992.

 

Ai??Graham’s System

 

Grahamai??i??s tactical evolution of Arsenal was complete. He used both the 4-4-2/4-5-1 formation and his version of 5-4-1 formation with great effect.

4-4-2 / 4-5-1

 

  • The full-backs controlled their attacking instincts and supported the attack only while chasing a game or against weaker opponents.
  • The discipline installed by him meant his defenders executed the off-side trap with unerring accuracy.
  • The wingers were the main weapon for Counter attacks.
  • The passing was direct and long balls were used to get behind opponents defense.
  • The two midfielders maintained their positions and were given much freedom to roam around.
  • One of the striker would drop deep to find space in front of the opponent’s defense.

 

5-4-1

  • The normal four-man defense would be aided by a sweeper, who would break-up play and mark midfielder who would make run from the deep.
  • The full-backs will push forward in order to stop the wingers of the opponents.
  • In this formation, the full backs were given more freedom to join the attack than in 4-4-2.
  • Among two central midfielders, one would play a deeper role allowing the other to join the attack.
  • Similar to the 4-4-2 formations, the wingers hold the key for counter attack and they also need to support the lone striker upfront.
  • Playing a single striker up-front means, the forward should be able to hold on to the ball and allow the midfielders to join in attack.

Ai??‘One-Nil to the Arsenal’

 

George Graham changed the fortunes of the club by winning its first league title after nearly 18 years. He reformed Arsenal, forged a winning team and gave Arsenal a defense that would go on to serve even his successor. In many ways, Graham laid the foundation for the success that Arsene Wenger got in his early days as the manager of the club. Ai??His tactical understanding of the game was second to none, and at times he won matches against far more superior opponents based on his strategic knowledge. Many fans have a perception that Arsenal were boring during Grahamai??i??s era and it couldnai??i??t be far from the truth.

His stint at the club can actually be broken down into two phases, 1986/87-1991/92 and 1992/93-1994/95.

1986-1992 : In the first phase, Arsenal were solid defensively as well as offensively. They scored an averaged 66 league goals per season.

1992-1995 : During this phase, while Arsenal remained strong at the back but they lost some of their flair going forward. They averaged only 48 league goals per season. It is from this phase of his stint that Arsenal began to win their infamous 1-0 victories over their opponents.

The Scotsman, a great player himself during his Arsenal days, will always be remembered as someone who started the revolution which has put Arsenal back among the best in Europe.

*Stats Courtesy – History_of_Arsenal_F.C._(1966ai??i??present) (Wikipedia)

 

Flashback

Arsenal vs Liverpool (Decisive match in 1988-89 season)

 

[youtube http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bQmO3S2eLPE&w=420&h=315]

 

Arsenal Vs Parma (1994, European Cup Winners Cup Final)

 

[youtube http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UQDULgLXwBs&w=420&h=315]

 

A note of thanks to @arsenalsince87 for his inputs in this article. Follow him on Twitter.

Continued in Part III ai??i?? tactical evolution under Arsene Wengerai??i??

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